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A child couldn't sleep, so her mother told her a story about a little frog,
  who couldn't sleep, so the frog's mother told her a story about a little bear,
    who couldn't sleep, so the bear's mother told her a story about a little weasel...
      who fell asleep.
    ...and the little bear fell asleep;
  ...and the little frog fell asleep;
...and the child fell asleep.

A recursive function (or self-recursive function) is a function that calls itself. The concept is familiar to mathematicians, who define the factorial function as the following: n! = n*(n-1)! with the special case that 0! = 1. Since the ! is used in the right side of the equal sign (in the first equation), the definition is recursive: it refers to itself. This may stink of circularity, but so long as the recursive case (right side of the equals sign) gets closer to the base case (0! = 1, which has no recursion), then it’ll all work out.

Here is our definition, in C++, of the factorial function just defined:

int factorial(int n)
{
    if(n == 0)
    {
        return 1;
    }
    else
    {
        return (n * factorial(n - 1));
    }
}

Notice that the code matches perfectly with the mathematical definition. This is quite nice, since it’s clean and simple (like math, usually).

Anything that can be done with recursion can be done with regular loops, and vice versa. Consider the simple algorithm of adding two numbers that involves adding 1 each time:

int a = 10, b = 21;
for(; b > 0; b--)
{
    a = a + 1;
}

That loop just adds one each time to a, and decreases 1 from b until b is

  1. The result is the value of b is added to a. Not the most efficient method of adding numbers, but it demonstrates an iterative method to perform addition.

This same iterative method can be done recursively instead, using no loops:

int add(int a, int b)
{
    if(b == 0)
    {
        return a;
    }
    else
    {
        return (1 + add(a, b - 1));
    }
}

So far, we have not seen the benefit of recursion. But it’s important to note that we can have recursion, and not have loops, but be able to accomplish all the same tasks. In fact, some programming languages (“functional languages” such as Lisp) sometimes completely abandon loops (no while or for loops) and instead make recursion really easy. With recursion, you can do a task repeatedly, if needed. But also with recursion, lots of hard problems become much simpler.

Recursion is the root of computation since it trades description for time. – Alan J. Perlis, Epigrams on Programming

Chess, Tic Tac Toe, Checkers, etc.

How does a robot play a board game? It uses recursion. Consider the following general technique for Chess:

The result of this recursive procedure is that the best move, the move that could eventually lead to a win (a “YES!”), is chosen. If no path results in a good move, well, the robot’s already lost the game (no move eventually leads to a win), so it should resign. A “search tree” was constructed and searched; for any “tree” in computer science, a recursive procedure is used to analyze it because each branch of a tree looks like a new tree. Self-similarity of different components of a problem domain is a prime reason recursion is used.

Sorting

Another example of recursion is the Quicksort algorithm, which is used to sort lists of things (numbers, names, etc.). Quicksort basically works as follows:

It seems that the algorithm is almost too simple: where is the actual sorting taking place? It’s deceptively simple, especially compared to algorithms that don’t use recursion. Additionally, this algorithm is one of the fastest we know about, and is used almost universally for sorting lists.

The stack

When a function calls another function, it cannot proceed until that other function has completed. So a recursive function call waits on the recursive call to finish. Thus, if a function calls itself n times, then there are n-1 functions waiting around for their recursive calls to finish. These waiting functions are pushed onto the “stack” (like a stack of plates, each function waits on top of the other). The deepest function call is at the top of the stack, and when that function finishes, it gets “popped off” the top of the stack, so that the previous function can proceed on its way.

If a function calls itself recursively too many times, the stack (which is just computer memory, and thus finite) may “overflow,” and the whole program crashes. So we need to be careful to write recursive algorithms that don’t get too deep (generally it takes thousands or more recursive calls to overflow the stack).

One of our great features of our compiler is that it happens to turn out that it is very easy to have a good recursive function in it. I am very fond of them. They are hardly used by customers. Nevertheless, it is very important that they are in. The reason is that they give us possibilities that make the tool inspiring. – E. W. Dijkstra, 1962

Picture-in-a-picture

Tortoise: That’s the word I was looking for! “POPPING-TONIC” is what it’s called, and if you remember to carry a bottle of it in your right hand as you swallow the pushing-potion, it too will be pushed into the picture; then, whenever you get a hankering to “pop” back out into real life, you need only take a swallow of popping-tonic, and presto! You’re back in the real world, exactly where you were before you pushed yourself in.

Achilles: That sounds very interesting. What would happen it you took some popping-tonic without having previously pushed yourself into a picture?

Tortoise: I don’t precisely know, Achilles, but I would be rather wary of horsing around with these strange pushing and popping liquids. Once I had a friend, a Weasel, who did precisely what you suggested–and no one has heard from him since.

Achilles: That’s unfortunate. Can you also carry along the bottle of pushing-potion with you?

Tortoise: Oh, certainly. Just hold it in your left hand, and it too will get pushed right along with you into the picture you’re looking at.

Achilles: What happens if you then find a picture inside the picture which you have already entered, and take another swig of pushing-potion?

Tortoise: Just what you would expect: you wind up inside that picture-in-a-picture.

Achilles: I suppose that you have to pop twice, then, in order to extricate yourself from the nested pictures, and re-emerge back in real life.

Tortoise: That’s right. You have to pop once for each push, since a push takes you down inside a picture, and a pop undoes that.

Achilles: You know, this all sounds pretty fishy to me… Are you sure you’re not just testing the limits of my gullibility?

Tortoise: I swear! Look-here are two phials, right here in my pocket. If you’re willing, we can try them. What do you say? – Gödel, Escher, Bach: An eternal golden braid

CSCI 221 material by Joshua Eckroth is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. Source code for this website available at GitHub.